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As you’re already aware, earning an instrument rating is a fun and rewarding experience that will provide you with added confidence and make your pilot’s license more powerful. But instrument flying is also unforgiving, and requires more than just passing an FAA checkride – it requires a system of continuing education and proficiency.
The instrument training trap – First, a word of caution – while your instrument flying skills and cockpit management techniques will no doubt be sharp when you earn your ticket, more than likely, the majority of your training and checkride preparation was spent in the terminal environment. This isn’t a bad thing – in fact, the structure of the Instrument training standards practically requires it. But there is still a wealth of knowledge and skill to be gained during en-route operations that will come with experience. The trap comes in the feeling of supreme IFR proficiency after the checkride with the possibility that not much experience has been gained in the cross-country environment; managing weather, planning for alternates, communicating with ATC or dealing with equipment malfunctions. In other words, you’ll need to commit time to determining what your personal limitations will look like as a newly-rated instrument pilot.
Here is my advice for maintaining proficiency, gaining experience and managing personal minimums.
Fly IFR even in VMC – Even in visual conditions, it’s invaluable to your development as an instrument pilot to operate “in the system” consistently. Doing so will boost your confidence and will force you to practice managing cockpit resources while adhering to IFR clearances. It also makes it easier to culminate your flights (even in VMC) with an approach. And then there is the ancillary benefit of having immediate access to ATC in the event of an emergency.
Tame the avionics – Regardless of your panel’s complexity, there is technology to be mastered. Achieving the level of proficiency where control inputs become instinctive, while already task saturated, can literally save the day. Like anything, this is knowledge that will degrade over time, so study your manuals and take advantage of simulator programs and training videos. As a start, you’ll want to be thoroughly familiar with your aircraft’s autopilot/flight director and GPS.
Checklists & flows – Use a checklist and flight deck flow for all of your procedures. Aviation happens to be at the forefront when it comes to checklist usage. The safest operations I’m familiar with typically use multiple checklist styles and layers for added safety that will evolve with time and experience.
To-Do Lists versus Checklists
A “to-do” list is just that. You methodically read through each item on the checklist and then perform the necessary task as you come to the item. This style is all that’s available when you’re brand-new to an aircraft and while it may be slightly more time consuming than a “checklist” style, it’s imperative to adhere to the order of the checklist. As you become more familiar with an aircraft and operating in the instrument environment, you may consider “flows” – an organized and consistent pattern of moving around the flight deck to accomplish items required of the upcoming checklist. The checklist can then be used to ensure each item on the written checklist has been accomplished via your flow. The “checklist/flow” style has the benefit of a double check – your flow, having been developed from the written checklist, becomes the first line of defense against missed items, while your written checklists serves as back up.
Written versus Mental
Undoubtedly you’ve learned or developed a mental checklist or if not, you likely will at some point. There’s the famous “GUMPS” as a before landing (G – gas, U – undercarriage, M – mixture, P – prop, S – seatbelt & switches) and “CIGAR” as a before takeoff. And if you don’t have a mental checklist for “in-range” or at final approach fix inbound, start developing one now. The mental checklist will serve as another valuable layer of redundancy and perhaps even a lifesaver in a critical situation with little or not time to consult a written list. The more layers of checklist redundancy, the less likely you’ll be to make a mistake.
Thorough Pre-Flight Procedures Review
A safe instrument flight starts with a thorough preflight to minimize the chance of any surprises. Get in the habit of reviewing weather, routing options and most importantly, contingency plans. This review should include planned routes and altitudes as well as alternates and available airports along your route.
Also review the expected arrivals, departures and approach procedures at airports of intended use and rehearse your departure and arrival plan. Be particularly aware of any traps and always take note of the Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA). And again, always plan for an IFR alternate, even in good weather – this exercise will keep you sharp for when the weather is low and an alternate is required.
Meaningful IPCs – An instrument proficiency check doesn’t just need to be accomplished when the regulations say so. In fact, if you heed much of this advice, hopefully you’ll never be required to have an IPC. But yes, you should voluntarily participate in meaningful IPCs. Venture outside your comfort zone with an instructor in the interest of your personal development as an instrument pilot.
Make Use of Flight Simulators or Flight Training Devices
There are many options for simulator software and full flight training devices that can provide a wealth of training value. The simulator environment will allow you to rehearse multiple procedures in quick succession in a variety of locations in an efficient manner. You’ll be able to experience realistic weather conditions and work through system malfunctions and failures in a much safer setting than in the aircraft.
Maintain the personal minimums discipline – Finally, regardless of your adherence to a proficiency program, the discipline is ultimately adhering to those personal minimums. Personal minimums are just that – personal. It’s not something you can read in a book. Stay within your comfort zone, continuously question your guidelines and remember, an occasional feeling of trepidation is healthy.
This article is part of IFR Month, a four-week focus on the challenges and rewards of instrument flying. For more, visit Sportys.com/IFR.